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Report text – definition, characteristics, structure, and example

Welcome back, learners!

Today, we’re diving into the world of report texts! Have you heard of it?

You might be thinking, “Report texts? That sounds formal and intimidating.” But fear not, we’re here to walk you through the process of understanding and crafting report texts with ease and confidence.

So, find a cozy spot, grab a snack, and let’s dive in! With our guidance and your enthusiasm for learning, we’re confident that you’ll emerge from this journey with the tools you need to tackle report texts like a pro!

What is report text?

Essentially, report text is a text that presents information in a clear and factual manner.

Wondering what that means?

It means that the content of a report text offers information about a particular subject, such as animals, places, events, or anything else, in a general way and according to the actual condition of the subject. For instance,if the topic is about endangered species, the text will inform readers about the species’ vulnerable status and the factors contributing to it.

It’s worth mentioning that report texts have some commonalities with descriptive texts. Both of these English writing styles offer information about a subject, such as people, animals, places, events, or other items. Furthermore, the primary function of both text types is to deliver factual information for the readers.

So, what sets them apart?

Descriptive texts concentrate on depicting a specific subject in detail, while report texts provide a broader perspective on a general topic. For example, a descriptive text might discuss “My Favorite Park,” exploring the park’s unique features, such as its size, the variety of plants and trees, available amenities, and so on. In contrast, a report text on “Parks” would offer a more general understanding of parks, discussing elements like their purpose, common facilities, benefits for the community, and types of parks that exist.

To summarize, report text maintains objectivity whereas descriptive text can be more subjective!

Report text’s language features

1. General nouns

Report texts often contain general nouns because they aim to provide objective and factual information about a broad subject rather than focusing on specific details or personal experiences. By using general nouns, report texts offer a comprehensive overview of a topic, making the information more accessible and applicable to a wider audience.

General nouns refer to words that denote a group or class of things, instead of a singular instance or individual item. For instance, when discussing transportation, a report text might utilize general nouns like “cars,” “trains,” or “bicycles” to encompass the various modes of transport available.

Incorporating general nouns in report texts enables the author to present a well-rounded and objective perspective on the subject matter.

2. Linking verbs

Linking verbs are important in report texts because they help connect the main idea of a sentence with more information about it. They make the text easy to understand for readers.

Linking verbs are words that join the main subject of a sentence with extra information that gives more details about it. Some common linking verbs include “be” (am, is, are, was, were), “seem,” “appear,” “become,” “feel,” “look,” “sound,” and “taste.”

In report texts, linking verbs help to share clear and simple information about a general topic. They show the connection between the main idea and its features, for example, in a report text about coral reefs, you might find a sentence “Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that support a wide variety of species.” In this case, the linking verb “are” connects the subject “coral reefs” with the subject complement “diverse ecosystems,” providing essential information about the nature of coral reefs.

By incorporating linking verbs in report texts, authors can effectively convey information, relationships, and descriptions, enabling readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.

3. Present Tense

Report texts typically use the present tense because they aim to provide general, factual information about a subject that is considered to be true or relevant now and in the future. 

To give you a refresher. the present tense is used to describe actions, events, or situations that are happening now, or general truths and facts that don’t change over time.

For example, in a report text about the benefits of exercise, an author might use the present tense to write, “Exercise improves our physical and mental health.” This statement conveys a general truth about exercise that applies to people now and will continue to be true in the future.

Report text’s structure

1. General Classification

This section introduces the subject and provides an overall classification or categorization. It sets the context for the readers, allowing them to understand the broader topic that will be discussed. In the General Classification, you’ll find a brief introduction to the subject, its purpose, and its relevance.

For example, if the report text is about smartphones, the General Classification may introduce smartphones as handheld electronic devices used for communication, internet access, and various other purposes.

2. Description

The Description section offers more detailed information about the subject, covering its features, characteristics, functions, or any other relevant aspects. This part aims to give readers a comprehensive understanding of the topic by presenting various aspects or subtopics related to the general subject. In the Description section, you may find information about the subject’s history, types, uses, advantages, disadvantages, and any other pertinent details.

Continuing with the smartphone example, the Description section could discuss the different types of smartphones, their operating systems, features, applications, and their impact on society.

Example #1: Rainforest

[General classification]

Rainforests are extensive forests located in tropical areas with high levels of rainfall throughout the year. Characterized by their rich biodiversity, rainforests play a crucial role in maintaining Earth’s ecological balance.


Rainforests can be found in various parts of the world, including South America, Africa, and Asia. The most extensive rainforest is the Amazon rainforest, located in South America. These ecosystems are vital due to their ability to support a diverse range of plant and animal species. It is estimated that more than half of Earth’s species reside within rainforest habitats.

A key feature of rainforests is their abundant plant life, which contributes to numerous benefits. Many plants found in rainforests are utilized for medicinal purposes, providing essential resources for human health. Additionally, rainforests contribute to air purification by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen, thus playing a role in mitigating climate change.

Nevertheless, rainforests face significant challenges, primarily due to deforestation. Driven by logging and land clearance for agricultural purposes, deforestation results in the loss of natural habitats for plant and animal species, and it contributes to global climate change.

Example #2: Polar Bear

[General classification]

Polar bears are large carnivorous mammals inhabiting the Arctic region. These fascinating creatures are uniquely adapted to survive in the harsh conditions of their icy environment and are essential components of the Arctic ecosystem.


Polar bears are primarily found in areas surrounding the Arctic Ocean, including countries such as Canada, Russia, Greenland, Norway, and the United States (Alaska). They are the largest land carnivores and are known for their distinct white fur, which serves as excellent camouflage in their snowy surroundings.

Polar bears have unique adaptations that enable them to thrive in their cold habitat. Their thick layer of fur and a layer of fat, called blubber, provide insulation against freezing temperatures. Additionally, their large paws are designed for efficient movement on ice and snow, while their strong limbs allow them to swim long distances in search of food.

The primary food source for polar bears is seals, which they hunt on the edges of sea ice. As apex predators, polar bears play a vital role in maintaining the balance of their ecosystem. However, they face significant threats due to climate change, particularly the loss of sea ice, which directly affects their hunting grounds and access to food.

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