Procedure text: definition, characteristics, function, and example

Welcome, learners! 

In today’s article, we will talk about procedure text! 

Most of you have probably come across procedure text before, whether in the instruction manual to assemble a piece of furniture or cooking recipes. Procedure texts guide us through tasks step by step. Let’s explore what they are, their components, and their language features, shall we?

What is a procedure text? 

Procedure text is a type of text that is written to explain how to do something. It’s a step-by-step explanation of a process or a set of instructions for completing a specific task. Procedure text is used in many contexts, such as manuals, recipes, scientific experiments, or instructions for assembling products.

What is the structure of a procedure text?

1. Goal

The goal is the starting point of a procedure text. It sets the stage by providing a clear statement of what the reader is trying to achieve by following the instructions. It gives context and purpose, helping the reader to understand why they are undertaking the task.

For example, in a recipe, the aim might be to bake a chocolate cake. In a science experiment, the goal could be to demonstrate a particular chemical reaction. By stating the aim or goal, the reader can focus on what needs to be accomplished.

2. Materials or ingredients 

This section provides a comprehensive list of everything needed to carry out the task. It ensures that the reader has everything at hand before starting.

  • Materials: This could include tools, equipment, or other supplies. For example, if you’re assembling a piece of furniture, this section would list all the required parts and tools like screws, nails, a hammer, etc.
  • Ingredients: In a cooking context, this refers to all the food items and quantities needed to prepare a dish. It’s like a shopping list for your recipe, ensuring you have everything you need to start cooking.

The Materials/Ingredients section is essential for preparation and helps ensure that the procedure goes smoothly from start to finish.

3. Steps 

The Steps are the heart of a procedure text. This section provides a detailed, step-by-step guide on how to achieve the aim or goal. It breaks down the task into manageable parts, often in a chronological or logical order.

Each step is usually written in a clear and concise manner, using imperative language (commands). It’s vital that these steps are easy to understand and follow, as any ambiguity or complexity can lead to confusion or mistakes.

What are the language features of a procedure text?

1. Simple present tense

The simple present tense in a procedure text makes the action immediate and relevant. It’s as if the procedure is happening right now, in real time, guiding the reader as they perform the task.


  • Pour the water into the glass 
  • Mix the ingredients until well combined 

2. Imperative sentences

Imperative sentences are command forms that tell someone to do something. They are direct and to the point, which is essential in instructions.


  • Knead the dough until smooth, then cover and let it rest for 30 minutes
  • Apply the paint evenly across the canvas, using broad strokes for a textured effect

3. Connectives 

Connectives (or conjunctions) are words or phrases that link different parts of a text. They can show the order of steps, the relationship between different parts, or add additional information.

Examples of connectives in procedure texts include words like then, next, after that, before, or finally. These words help guide the reader through the process in a logical and coherent way.


  • First, wash the rice; then, soak it for 20 minutes
  • Measure the ingredients carefully. After that, mix them in a bowl

4. Adverbs

Adverbs can provide additional detail about how an action is to be performed, adding precision and clarity to the instructions. They can describe how, when, where, or to what extent something is done.


  • Slowly add water to the flour, stirring constantly
  • Thoroughly wash the vegetables to remove any dirt or pesticides

The adverbs ‘slowly’ and ‘thoroughly’ in these examples add nuance to the action, guiding the reader on how exactly to perform the task.

Procedure text example

How to bake chocolate chip cookies


  • 1 cup butter, softened
  • 3/4 cup granulated sugar
  • 3/4 cup brown sugar
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 2 cups chocolate chips


  • First, preheat the oven to 190°C. Then, lightly grease a baking sheet.
  • In a large bowl, thoroughly cream together the butter, granulated sugar, and brown sugar using an electric mixer.
  • Next, beat in the eggs one at a time, followed by the vanilla extract.
  • In another bowl, combine the flour, salt, and baking soda. Gradually add this to the butter mixture, stirring well.
  • Finally, gently fold in the chocolate chips.
  • Using a spoon, evenly drop portions of dough onto the prepared baking sheet.
  • Bake for 9 to 11 minutes or until golden brown. Meanwhile, prepare a cooling rack.
  • Carefully remove the cookies from the oven and allow them to cool on the baking sheet for a minute.
  • Then, transfer the cookies to the cooling rack to cool completely.

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